“Il Fanale” ( The Lighthouse)
History says that:
It was built in 1302 by the Pisa Republic both as a
lighthose and for coastal defence, after the Meloria tower had been destryed in
1286 by the Genovese, following their victory over Pisa in 1284. The design is
attributed to Giovanni Pisano, while we are sure of the names of the master
masons, found inscribed on a stone at the base of the tower – Nocco Entello De
Spina and Bonaggiunta Ciabatti:
The lighthouse was built in stone from the quarry at San Giuliano, with a
wide conical base which – just as today, appears to support twwo crenellated
columns, one on top of the other, in actual fact, they consisted of seven
cylinders of progressively diminishing diameters. The top was reached by a winding
staircase, the various landings set with windows. The lighthouse, includine the
beacon, was 51 metres tall.
In 1583, Grand-duke Francesco I ordered the building of a Lazzaretto and
Dante Alighieri, Petrarca and others mentioned the lighthouse in their
writhings. It was destroyed on 20 June 1944 by German bombs, and later rebuilt.
It was inaugurated on 16 September 1956 as part of celebrations for the 350°
anniversary of Livorno’s proclamation as a city.